Android UI Layouts (Linear, Relative, Frame, Table, ListView, GridView, WebView)

  Total Views : 46
  Comments : 0
  Keywords : Android ui layouts to define user interface for an app or activity, Android user interface layouts are used to hold all the elements that appear to the user

Here we will learn android ui layouts or android user interface layouts, different types of android ui layouts (linear, relative, web view, table, frame, list view, grid view) and how to use android user interface (UI) layouts with examples.

Android User Interface (UI) Layouts

In android, Layout is used to define the user interface for an app or activity and it will hold the UI elements that will appear to the user.

 

The user interface in android app is made with a collection of View and ViewGroup objects. Generally, the android apps will contain one or more activities and each activity is a one screen of app. The activities will contain a multiple UI components and those UI components are the instances of View and ViewGroup subclasses.

 

The View is a base class for all UI components in android and it is used to create an interactive UI components such as TextView, EditText, Checkbox, Radio Button, etc. and it responsible for event handling and drawing.

 

The ViewGroup is a subclass of View and it will act as a base class for layouts and layouts parameters. The ViewGroup will provide an invisible containers to hold other Views or ViewGroups and to define the layout properties.

 

To know more about View and ViewGroup in android applications, check this Android View and ViewGroup.

 

In android, we can define a layouts in two ways, those are

 

  • Declare UI elements in XML
  • Instantiate layout elements at runtime

The android framework will allow us to use either or both of these methods to define our application’s UI. 

Declare UI Elements in XML

In android, we can create a layouts same like web pages in HTML by using default Views and ViewGroups in XML file. The layout file must contain only one root element, which must be a View or ViewGroup object. Once we define root element, then we can add additional layout objects or widgets as a child elements to build View hierarchy that defines our layout.

 

Following is the example of defining a layout in XML file (activity_main.xml) using LinearLayout to hold a TextView, EditText and Button.

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
   
android:orientation="vertical"

    android:layout_width="match_parent"
   
android:layout_height="match_parent">
    <
TextView
       
android:id="@+id/fstTxt"
       
android:layout_width="wrap_content"
       
android:layout_height="wrap_content"
       
android:text="Enter Name"
        
/>
    <
EditText
       
android:id="@+id/name"
       
android:layout_width="wrap_content"
       
android:layout_height="wrap_content"
       
android:ems="10">
    </
EditText>
    <
Button
       
android:id="@+id/getName"
       
android:layout_width="wrap_content"
       
android:layout_height="wrap_content"
       
android:text="Get Name" />
</
LinearLayout>

We need to create a layout files in /res/layout project directory, then only the layout files will compile properly.

Load XML Layout File from an Activity

Once we are done with creation of layout, we need to load the XML layout resource from our activity onCreate() callback method like as shown below

 

protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
   
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
    setContentView(R.layout.
activity_main); 
}

If you observe above code we are calling our layout using setContentView method in the form of R.layout.layout_file_name. Here our xml file name is activity_main.xml so we used file name activity_main.

 

Generally, during the launch of our activity, onCreate() callback method will be called by android framework to get the required layout for an activity.

Instantiate Layout Elements at Runtime

If we want to instantiate layout elements at runtime, we need to create own custom View and ViewGroup objects programmatically with required layouts.

 

Following is the example of creating a layout using LinearLayout to hold a TextView, EditText and Button in an activity using custom View and ViewGroup objects programmatically.

 

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

   
@Override
   
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
       
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        TextView textView1 = new TextView(this);
        textView1.setText(
"Name:");
        EditText editText1 =
new EditText(this);
        editText1.setText(
"Enter Name");
        Button button1 =
new Button(this);
        button1.setText(
"Add Name");
        LinearLayout linearLayout =
new LinearLayout(this);
        linearLayout.addView(textView1);
        linearLayout.addView(editText1);
        linearLayout.addView(button1);
        setContentView(linearLayout);
    }
}

By creating a custom View and ViewGroup programmatically, we can define a layouts based on our requirements in android applications.

Width and Height

When we define a layout using XML file we need to set width and height for every View and ViewGroup element using layout_width and layout_height attributes.

 

Following is the example of setting width and height for View and ViewGroup elements in XML layout file.

 

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
   
android:orientation="vertical"

    android:layout_width="match_parent"
   
android:layout_height="match_parent">
    <
TextView
       
android:id="@+id/fstTxt"
       
android:layout_width="wrap_content"
       
android:layout_height="wrap_content"
       
android:text="Enter Name" />
</
LinearLayout>

If you observe above example, we used different values to set layout_width and layout_height, those are

 

  • match_parent
  • wrap_content

If we set value match_parent, then the View or ViewGroup will try to match with parent width or height.

 

If we set value wrap_content, then the View or ViewGroup will try to adjust its width or height based on the content.

Android Layout Attributes

In android, like layout_width and layout_height we have a different type of attributes available for View and ViewGroup objects to define the appearance of layouts based on our requirements.

 

Following are the some of common layout attributes used in android application.

 

AttributeDescription
android:id It is used to uniquely identify the view and ViewGroups
android:layout_width It is used to define the width for View and ViewGroup elements in layout
android:layout_height It is used to define the height for View and ViewGroup elements in layout
android:layout_marginLeft It is used to define the extra space in left side for View and ViewGroup elements in layout
android:layout_marginRight It is used to define the extra space in right side for View and ViewGroup elements in layout
android:layout_marginTop It is used to define the extra space on top for View and ViewGroup elements in layout
android:layout_marginBottom It is used to define the extra space in bottom side for View and ViewGroup elements in layout
android:paddingLeft It is used to define the left side padding for View and ViewGroup elements in layout files
android:paddingRight It is used to define the right side padding for View and ViewGroup elements in layout files
android:paddingTop It is used to define padding for View and ViewGroup elements in layout files on top side
android:paddingBottom It is used to define the bottom side padding for View and ViewGroup elements in layout files
android:layout_gravity It is used to define how child Views are positioned

Android Layout Types

We have a different type of layouts available in android to implement user interface for our android applications with different designs based on our requirements.

 

Following are the commonly used layouts in android applications to implement required designs.

 

Android Linear Layout

In android, LinearLayout is a ViewGroup subclass which is used to render all child View instances one by one either in horizontal direction or vertical direction based on the orientation property.

 

To know more about LinearLayout check this, Android LinearLayout with Examples.

Android Relative Layout

In android, RelativeLayout is a ViewGroup which is used to specify the position of child View instances relative to each other (Child A to the left of Child B) or relative to the parent (Aligned to the top of parent).

 

To know more about RelativeLayout, check this Android RelativeLayout with Examples.

Android Frame Layout

In android, FrameLayout is a ViewGroup subclass which is used to specify the position of View instances it contains on the top of each other to display only single View inside the FrameLayout.

 

To know more abour FrameLayout, check this Android FrameLayout with Examples.

Android Table Layout

In android, TableLayout is a ViewGroup subclass which is used to display the child View elements in rows and columns.

 

To know more about TableLayout in android check this, Android TableLayout with Examples.

Android Web View

In android, WebView is a browser which is used to display the web pages as a part of our activity layout.

 

To know more about Web View in android check this, Android WebView with Examples.

Android List View

In android, ListView is a ViewGroup which is used to display scrollable single column list of items.

 

To know more about List View in android check this, Android ListView with Examples.

Android Grid View

In android, GridView is a ViewGroup which is used to display items in a scrollable grid of columns and rows.

 

To know more about Grid View in android check this, Android GridView with Examples

 Comments (0)

Be the first to give your valuable feedback

Leave a comment

  • Default Tutlane User